A computer program in BASIC computer language for use in storing and comparing the components of various biological culture media is described. The program contains 11 operations that deal with manipulation of data related to components, component qu
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U S E D FOR IN V I T R O
OF N U T R I E N T
CELL C U L T U R E S
(UDC 578.085.23) E. P.
V. T .
Division of Immunobiology (Head, Active Member AMN SSSR Professor N. N. Zhukov-Verezhnikov), Institute of Experimental Biology (Director, Professor I. N. Maiskii) of the AMN SSSR, Moscow (Presented by Active Member AMN SSSR N. N. Zhukov-Verezhnikov) Translated from Byulleten' ~ksperimental'noi Biologii i Meditsiny, Vol. 58, No. 12, pp. 70-75, December, 1964 Original article submitted June 19, 1963
Recent investigations have been concerned with the i m m u n o l o g i c a l characteristics of cells [3, 4, 6], including cells cultivated in vitro [10, 12]. The immunogenetic aspect of these investigations is of greatest interest [14, 15, 17]. The loss of some antigens has been observed in the process of cultivation [16, 18]. Other antigens, however, are preserved even after prolonged cultivation [2, 7, 8]. The secretion of y - g l o b u l i n into the medium by HeLa cells has been reported . The object of this investigation was to study the difference between a medium before use for cultivation of cells (medium A) and the medium after cultivation of cells (medium B) by i m m u n o l o g i c a l methods, i.e., to detect a specific antigen in the medium after its use for cultivation of cells, to investigate the fate of the protein component, and to compare the media with various sera. METHOD Cells were cultivated in synthetic nutrient medium No. 199 with 10~ serum. As serum component the serum from a young calf and the serum from adult chinchilla rabbits were used. The seeding dose was 500,000 cells to 10 ml of medium. The cultivation time was 7 days, with one change of medium. After cultivation of the cells the media were collected for i m m u n o l o g i c a l analysis. The following strains of cells were used: H e L a - a line of cells from a carcinoma of the human uterus , A - 1 - a line of cells from human amnion (obtained in 1959 by T. G Ortova at the Moscow Research Institute of Viral Preparations), C K - a line of cells from the lung of a human embryo , C a v e - a line of cells from carcinoma of tile stomach , Cave K l - a clonal line of ceils from a carcinoma of the human stomach, Cave K r - a clonal line of cells from a carcinoma of the human stomach adapted to rabbit serum. The anaphylaxis with desensitization reaction was carried out on guinea pigs weighing 280-800 g. T h e g u i n e a pigs were sensitized by subcutaneous injection of 0.5 ml of medium B of line HeLa. The desensitizing and reacting injections of the antigens were given into the heart 3 weeks after the primary injection of protein. The following antisera were used: antiserum to medium A, antiserum to medium B of line Cave, antiserum to medium B of Cave Kr, antiserum to caif serum, and antiserum precipitating h a m a n protein. The antisera to media A and B Cave were additionally concentrated. Scheme of immunization. The antigens were injected intravenously three times on alternate days, and 8 weeks later the animals were reimmunized intraperitoneally. The d0se of antigen for immunization, calculated in relation to the serum component, was 1 m l serum, and the dose for r e i m m u n i z a t i o n was 2 m l serum. The protein content in the antigens of media A and B was also determined as nitrogen by Conway's method. The totat protein content of medium A was 390 rag, and of medium B a60 rag. Blood was taken twice at an interval of 1 week. The first time of taking blood was 1 week after the last injection of antigen. The following test antigens were used: calf serum, rabbit serum, human serum of blood group IV, medium A, medium B of line A-1, CK, Cave, Cave K l, Cave Kr.
Fig. I. Precipitation of antisera to media A (I) and B (II) in gel. Fig. 2. Immunoelectrophoresis of antisera to media A (a), B-29 (b), and B (c).
Fig. 3. Immunoelectrophoresis of sera precipitating calf (I) and human (II) protein. Conventional signs in all figures. Antisera: a/A) to medium A; a/B) to medium B; a/B 29) to medium B of Iine Cave Kr; a/NCS) precipitating calf protein; a/NHS) precipitating human protein. Antigens: A) medium before cultivation of cells; B) medium after cuitivation of cells; Cave, CK, A - l ) names of lines of cells; K 1) clonai line of cells; c) medium with calf serum; Kr) medium with rabbit serum; 29) medium with serum of rabbit No. 29, NCS, NRS, and NHS) normal calf, rabbit, and human sera respectively. 1445
TABLE 1. Results of Antigenic Analysis of Nutrient Media after Cultivation of Ceils of Strain HeLa
Guinea pig No.
Sensitization withmedium B Dose (in ml) s/c
1 2 3
Reacting injection of medium B
Desensitization with medium A
Dose Reac, (in t ion ml) i/p
Dose Dose Reac(in (in tion ml) ml) i/c
Dose Dose Dose ReacReacReacReacl(in (in ! (in tion tion tion tion ml) ml) ml) i/c
0.5 0.5 0.5
Legend: - no reaction; + brief scratching of nose with paw; ++ stronger scratching, sneezing, panting, untidiness of the hair, cough; +++ the same, but more marred, passage of urine and feces; ++++ convulsions, jumping, fits, usually terminating in death of the a n i m a l ; s/c) subcutaneous injection; L/p) intraperitoneal injection; i/c) intracardiac injection. For the immunoelectrophoretic analysis the antigens were dispersed on the glass of a photographic plate measuring 9 x 12 cm. A !ayer of agar with a volume of 10 ml was applied to the plate. The thickness of the layer was approximately 2 ram. The agar was prepared in v e r o n a l - m e d i n a l buffer at pH 8.6 and with an ionic strength of 0.025. The apparatus for immunoelectrophoresis was slightly modified from that normally used: the paper bridge between the plate and the buffer was replaced by one made of agar. The gel-diffusion reaction was carried out by Ouchterlony's method in Petri dishes of Orion type . RESULTS
The medium B of line HeLa was tested for the presence of specific antigen by means of the anaphylaxis with desensitization reaction (Table 1). The results showed that, after Complete desensitization with medium A and verification of the completeness of desensitization, the guinea pigs reacted by anaphylactic shock to injection of medium B of line HeLa. This indicated that medium B contained a specific protein, resulting from the metabolism of the ceils in vitro. After antisera had been given tO media A and B of line Cave, it was possible to investigate the antigenic properties of the nutrient media by gel-diffusion and immunoelectrophoretic techniques. In crossed gel-diffusion tests, antiserum to medium A revealed one antigen in medium A and one antigen in medium B of line Cave (Fig. 1I); antiserum to medium B of line Cave /evealed 1 and 2-3 antigens respectively. In the n o n - i d e n t i t y reaction, medium B of line Cave contained an additional n o n - i d e n t i c a l antigen (Fig. lit). The results demonstrated an antigenic difference between medium A and medium B of line Cave, n a m e l y that m e d i u m B was richer in antigens than medium A. In the immunoelectrophoretic tests the antisera were studied in more detail. Additional test antigens were used: calf serum, medium B of line Cave K 1, Cave K r, CK, and A-1. Calf serum was used for identification of serum antigens, medium B of line Cave K 1 for comparison of the original line with the clonal line, medium B of line Cave Kr for detection of the specific antigen bound with cells of line Cave but not containing calf serum, and medium B of lines CK and A-1 for determination of specificity. In the course of immunoelectrophoresis antiserum to medium A revealed the presence of one antigen in media A and B of line Cave, which was also found in medium B of line Cave K 1, CK, and A-1. These antigens were not found in medium B of line Cave Kr. Two antigens were detected in calf serum (Fig. 2a). Antiserum to medium B of line Cave revealed the presence of 3-4 antigens in medium B of line Cave and in mediurn A; the same number of antigens was also found in medium B of lines Cave K 1, CK, and A-1. In medium B of line Cave Kr no antigens were found. The calf serum contained 6 antigens (see Fig. 2c). These investigations showed that the antigens detected by the antisera were evidently of calf origin and were associated with the presence of calf serum in the
TABLE 2. Results of I m m u n o e l e c t r o p h o r e t i c Analysis of Nutrient Media Used for Cultivation of Ceils in Vitro Ant ise.ra
TO m e -
TO m e dium
H tlllqan serui71
12 9 9 9 0 9
16 3 2 2 2 0 2
line line line line line
Cave C a v e K1 C a v e Kr CK A-1
1 1 ]
0 1 1
To m e dium A
To m e dium B of line Cave
If To hu-
Calf serum Medium A Medium B of Medium B of Medium B of Medium B of Medium B of
of line C a v e Kr
Legend: numbers indicate number of precipitation bands; - no test carried out. nutrient m e d i u m . Further e v i d e n c e of this was the absence of these antigens from medium B of line C a v e K r. In m e d i u m B of line Cave K r, however, no specific antigen resulting from the metabolism of the ceils in vitro could be discovered by means of this reaction. T h e fate of the serum component of the media was studied by means of a strong antiserum to calf serum. T h e reaction was carried out in a similar manner to that used in the study of the e x p e r i m e n t a l antisera. In the electrophoretic test this antiserum revealed the presence of 12 antigens in the c a l f serum and 9 antigens in m e dium A; however, 9 antigens also were found in each of the m e d i a B of lines Cave, C a v e K 1, CK, and A-1. Not one antigen was found in m e d i u m B of strain C a v e K r (Fig. 3I). Th e results of this investigation show that the serum component of the medium remained unchanged in the course of cultivation. Th e use of an antiserum precipitating human protein was e s p e c i a l l y interesting. Th e reaction was carried out in the same way as during the study of the e x p e r i m e n t a l antisera. T o d e t e r m i n e the properties of the antiserum, in addition normal human serum was used. In the i m m u n o el ect r o p h o r et i c test this antiserum revealed the presence of 16 antigens in human serum, 3 antigens in calf serum, and 2 antigens each in medium A and medium B of lines C av e, C a v e K1, CK, and A-1. In medium B of strain Cave Kr not one antigen was found (Fig. 3II). In this reaction h et ero g en i c antigens of c a l f origin were demonstrated. T h e use of an antiserum which would not react with the serum components of the m ed i a was also of great interest. For this purpose rabbits were i m m u n ized with medium B containing rabbit serum. In the i m m u n o e l e c t r o phoretic test this antiserum (to m e d i u m B of line C a v e Kr, adapted to rabbit serum) revealed 1 antigen in medium B of line Cave Kr, no antigen in rabbit serum, 3 antigens in medium A, 2 antigens in medium B of lines Cave , C a v e K1, CK, and A-l, and 3 antigens in calf serum. Th e position of the precipitation band with its own antigen did not coincide with that of the precipitation bands found in other antigens (see Fig. 2b), thus indicating their specificity. T h e result of the i m m u n o e l e e t r o p h o r e t i c tests are given in T a b l e 2. The c o m p a r a t i v e study of the medium before and after cultivation of the cells by means of the anaphylaxis with desensitization reaction revealed the presence of a specific antigen in the medium after cultivation of the HeLa cells. T h e investigation of the medium after cultivation of cells adapted to rabbit serum yielded some interesting results. No antigens were found which were c o m m o n to this medium and the m e d i u m containing c a l f serum; likewise no common antigen could be found in the medium after cultivation of the cells of this line in c a w serum. T h e strong antiserum to c a l f serum did not r e v e a l a single c o m m o n antigen. A strong antiserum precipitating human protein likewise failed to reveal an antigen, although it readily detected a heterogenic antigen with calf serum. In the process of adaptation the antigenic properties associated with the c a l f serum component of the m e d i u m were evidently c o m p l e t e l y lost.
The antiserum against the medium after cultivation of the cells adapted to rabbit serum evidently revealed a specific antigen, although this same antiserum also revealed heterogenic calf serum antigens in m e d i a with c a l f serum which were not found in the original antigen, confirming that the c a l f serum antigen was lost in the process of adaptation of the c e l l lines to rabbit serum. Antiserum to calf serum, i.e., the serum usually added to synthetic nutrient medium No. 199, revealed a large number of antigens both in its own antigen and also in a 10% solution with medium No. 199. However, during cultivation of the cells of a l l the lines investigated, not one of the antigens of calf serum was lost. Evidently the ceils either did not utilize the serum component of the nutrient media, or they did so in a n e g l i g i b l e amount and the difference was too small for d e t e c t i o n by immunoelectrophoresis. LITERATURE 1. 2. 3. 4.
Ya. V. Dobrynin and R. P. Dirlugyan, Vopr. onkol., No. 8 (1961), p. 47. A . M . Eroshkina and V. N. Kolmykova, Abstracts of Proceedings of the 8th International Cancer Congress [in Russian], Moscow (1962), p. 81. N . N . Zhukov-Verezhnikov, I. N. Maiskii, and V. S. Gostev, In book: Malignant Neoplasms [in Russian], Moscow (1959), p. 147. N . N . Zhukov-Verezhnikov, I. N. Maiskii, and G. P. Tribulev, Vesm. Akad. Med. Nauk SSSR, No. 4 (1962), p. 65.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 1:3. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.
L . A . Z i l ' b e r and G. I. Abelev, The Virology and Immunology of Cancer [in Russian], Moscow (1962). P . N . Kosyakov, Antigenic Substances of the Organism and Their Importance in Biology and Medicine [in Russian], Moscow (1954). P . N . Kosyakov, T. P. Konstantinova, and T. A. Posevaya, Vopr. virusol., No. 4 (1963), p. 498. A . T . Kravchenko, N. A. Kolesnikova, and G. T. Patrikeev, Byull. 6ksper. biol., No. 9 (1962), p. 74. T . G . Orlova, In book: Virus Infections and Antiviral Preparations [in Russian], Moscow (1961), p. 330. A . D . Timofeevskii, Vestn. Akad. Med. Nauk SSSR, No. 6 (1962), p. 17. A . Z . Budzynski, E. Broda, G. Kellner, et al., Nature, 19~6 (1962), p. 892. R.R. Coombs, Cancer Res., 21 (1961), p. 1198. G . O . Gey, W. D. Coffman, and M. T. Kubicek, Cancer. Res., 12 (1952), p. 264. T . S . Hauschka, In book: Canadian Cancer Research Conference. Proceedings, 2, New York (1957), p. 305. L. Korngold, Univ. Mich. med. Bull., 28 (1962), p. 337. A. Majskii, E. Rerabkova, and D. Peskova, Neoplasma, 9, Bratisl. (1962), p. 141. L. Sachs, Acta Un. int. Cancer., 16 (t960), p. 21. T. Vainio and K. Penttinen, Ann. Med. exp. Fenn., 37 (1959), p. 18.
A l l a b b r e v i a t i o n s of p e r i o d i c a l s in t h e a b o v e b i b l i o g r a p h y are l e t t e r - b y - l e t t e r t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n s o f t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n s a s g i v e n in the o r i g i n a l R u s s i a n journal. Some or all of t h i s perio d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e may w e l l be a v a i l a b l e in E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . A c o m p l e t e l i s t o f the c o v e r - t o -
c o v e r E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s a p p e a r s at the b a c k of t h i s i s s u e .