Heating oxidized fats to 210°C. under reduced pressure for 10 to 15 min. removed peroxides without affecting the tocopherol content. This simple heating method yielded a higher recovery of tocopherol in oxidized fats than other modifications of the E
A relatively simple method is detailed for the routine isolation and estimation of oxofatty acids (OFA) in lipids. The lipid in cyclohexane is transmethylated in a two-phase, 3.5 min procedure, and the carbonyls in the methyl ester fraction are deriv
The glyceride compositions of seven animals and seven vegetable fats have been determined by GLC analysis of the oxidized esterified glycerides as described in an earlier paper in this series. The compositions determined are compared with those calcu
A new method for analysis of Sorbitan Tristearate (STS) in vegetable oils and fats has been developed. The method is based on isolation and hydrolysis of STS compounds in a silica cartridge. The polyalcohols are eluted from the silica cartridge and t
Fats and fatty acids are polymerized by oxidative or thermal processes. Structures have been deduced by using a number of chemical and physical techniques. General methods applicable to the analysis of polymerized oils include determinations of aceto
A method is described for the isolation of polymerized products in frying fats as a urea non-inclusion fraction (NAF). Analysis of fats used in commercial frying operations and of fats extracted from some fried foods is reported. Amount of NAF obtain
The Kokatnur-Jelling method as modified by Lingenfelter for the determination of peroxides in animal fat has been found to agree satisfactorily with other methods now in use. The modified method involves a microtitration in a homogeneous medium (isop
Determination of Dimethylpolysiloxanes in Fats and Oils 1 W.G. DOEDEN, E.M. KUSHIBAB 2 and A.C. INGALA, Swift and Company, Research and Development Center, 1919 Swift Drive, Oak Brook, Illinois 60521 ABSTRACT A direct aspiration, flame atomic absorption method has been developed for the determination of dimethylpolysiloxanes (DMPS) in fats and oils. The detection limit of the method is approximately 1 ppm with a standard deviation for samples containing 1-10 ppm DMPS of 0.3. The technique is reasonably rapid, requires a minimum of sample preparation, and is applicable to the analysis of both hydrogenated and nonhydrogenated products. INTRODUCTION Dimethylpolysiloxanes (DMPS) or methyl silicones are commonly added to fats and oils to prevent oxidative foaming in products used in frying applications. In spite of their widespread use, methodology for their determination in hydrogenated products remains relatively limited. In general, the methods employed for their determination in fats and oils require an isolation of the DMPS from the fat followed by an atomic absorption (AA) determination of silicon in the isolates. One of the more frequently applied techniques was developed by Neal and coworkers (1) who reported on the low temperature extraction of DMPS from fats and oils with petroleum ether followed by A A analysis of the extract. This technique, while successfully applied in some laboratories, is a reasonably tedious and technique-dependent method for the determination of DMPS. More recently Kundu (2) reported on a method employing flameless AA. In this work, the fat is converted to a soap, the siloxanes extracted into an organic solvent and the extract analyzed for silicon. This technique is also relatively time consuming and technique-dependent. Freeman (3) eliminated the need for an isolation step by employing a direct aspiration flame A A technique for estimating the DMPS content of sunflower seed oil. While applicable to the analysis of lightly hydrogenated oils, this method is n o t directly applicable to the analysis of more heavily hydrogenated products. In contrast, the procedure detailed below is relatively rapid and is applicable to the analysis of both hydrogenated and nonhydrogenated fats and oils. The detection limit is ca. 1 ppm with a standard deviation of 0.3 for samples containing 1-10 p p m DMPS. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
alignment of the cork gasket in the nebulizer head so that it did n o t even partially block the gas inlets, enabled us to obtain a reasonably stable baseline at a sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units full scale. Heating both sample and standard solutions to 70 C prior to analysis reduced solution viscosity, increased the aspiration rate and consequently improved the sensitivity of the method. Materials Dow Coming 200 was used as the dimethylpolysiloxane standard, and a DMPS-free hydrogenated soybean oil was used to match the viscosities of the standards to those of the samples. Industrial grade mineral spirits with a boiling range of 157-197 C as supplied by Central Solvents and Chemical Co., Chicago, Illinois, was used as a solvent for both standards and samples. Standards Working standards were prepared by pipetting 10, 8, 6, 4 and 2 ml of a 20/~g/ml Dow Corning 200 in mineral spirits solution into separate 50 ml volumetric flasks each containing 20 g of DMPS-free fat and diluting to volume with mineral spirits. These solutions contained 10, 8, 6, 4 and 2 /ag DMPS per gram of fat, respectively. A solution containing 40% fat and 30/ag DMPS per gram of fat was also prepared for use in the optimization of the instrument. Procedure Sample solutions were prepared by dissolving 20 g of melted fat in mineral spirits and diluting to 50 ml. Both standard and sample solutions were then placed in a water bath at 70 C and allowed to equilibrate for ca. 1 hr. Aspiration rate, flame conditions and burner position were optimized while aspirating the unheated 20 #g/ml DMPS stock solution. An absorbance of ca. 0.04 was generally considered desirable. The heated 30/~g DMPS p e r g of fat solution was then aspirated and the nebulizer adjusted to yield the m a x i m u m response. The standard and sample solutions were then alternately removed from the 70 C bath and immediately aspirated into the flame. Mineral spirits at ambient t e m p e r a t u r e was continually aspirated between sample and standard solutions.
Apparatus A Perkin-Elmer model 403 atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used in conjunction with a silicon hollow cathode lamp. Instrumental parameters were: wavelength 251.6 nm, recorder response 3, slit 4 (0.7 nm). The instrum e n t was used in the concentration mode at an expansion setting of 900 (ca. 0.01 absorbance units full scale). A nitrous oxide-acetylene flame was used with flow rates of 13 liters/minute for nitrous oxide and 7 l i t e r s / m i n u t e for acetylene. Data were collected on a 10 MV recorder. A 70 C water bath was used to heat sample and standard solutions prior to analysis. The selection of a wider slit setting than that recommended by the manufacturer, combined with proper 1presented at a symposium of the North Central Section, March 28, 1979. 2present address: Evans Food Products Co., Chicago, Illinois.
FIG. 1. Recorder response obtained for DMPS w o r k i n g standards. Concentrations are in #g DMPS/g o f fat.
JAOCS February 1980 / 73
W.G. DOEDEN, E.M. KUSHIBAB AND A.C. INGALA TABLE I
Replicate Determinations of Dimethylpolysiloxane in Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil a Dime~ylpolysiloxane(ppm)
-2.0 4.0 7.0 10.0
NDb 1.9 3.8
ND 2.0 4.0
NO 2.1 3.9 7.0 9.6
alV-65. bND = None Detected.
~o :r ,as
o ~40 Q.
TABLE I1 Recovery of Dimethylpolysiloxane from Hydrogenated Vegetable Oila Dimethylpolysiloxane (ppm)
~g/g FIG. 2. Calibration curve obtained from DMPS working standards.
0.5 1.0 3.0 5.0 5.0 5.5
0.8 1.1 3.0 4.6 5.1 5.4
7.O 7.0 9.0 11.0 13.0
6.7 6.6 8.7 10.4 12.6
Concentrations are in ~g DMPS/g of fat.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
TABLE III Dimethylpolysiloxane in Commercial Frying Fats
Instrument Calibration T h e r e c o r d e r tracings o b t a i n e d for standards containing 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 /ag DMPS per gram of fat are presented in Figure 1. A calibration curve was prepared by p l o t t i n g average peak h e i g h t vs. c o n c e n t r a t i o n in/ag DMPS per g of fat for these standards. T h e curve is presented in Figure 2. T h e DMPS c o n t e n t o f the fat or oil is read directly f r o m the calibration curve.
Recovery Studies and Sample Analyses A sample of DMPS-free, h y d r o g e n a t e d fat was fortified with k n o w n levels o f D o w Corning 200 and analyzed in triplicate. T h e results o b t a i n e d are presented in Table I. Single d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were also m a d e on a second set of samples c o n t a i n i n g k n o w n a m o u n t s o f DMPS. T h e results are p r e s e n t e d in Table II. In b o t h instances the precision and r e c o v e r y data are satisfactory. Three frying fats of u n k n o w n DMPS c o n c e n t r a t i o n were also analyzed in duplicate on t w o d i f f e r e n t days. T h e s e results are presented in Table III. Based on the data o b t a i n e d in these and o t h e r studies, the s t a n d a r d deviation of the m e t h o d was f o u n d to be ca. 0.3 over the range of 1-10 p p m DMPS or +0.6 p p m at 95% c o n f i d e n c e . T h e d e t e c t i o n limit of the m e t h o d , defined as a response equal to twice noise, was f o u n d to be b e l o w 1/ag DMPS per gram of fat. In those instances w h e n o p t i m u m i n s t r u m e n t p e r f o r m a n c e was o b t a i n e d , it was possible to achieve a d e t e c t i o n limit as low at 0.5 p p m DMPS.
74 / JAOCS February 1980
Dimethylpolysiloxane (ppm) Day I
1 2 3
5.3 3.9 2.5
5.1 3.8 2.4
5.0 3.4 2.2
5.1 3.6 2.1
This m e t h o d is relatively rapid and has been used successfully in our l a b o r a t o r y to m o n i t o r the u n i f o r m i t y o f DMPS distribution in a p r o d u c t , to d e t e r m i n e its fate in frying studies and to d e t e c t cross c o n t a m i n a t i o n of p r o d u c t streams. REFERENCES 1. Neal, P., A.D. Campbell, and D. Firestone, JAOCS 46:561 (1969). 2. Kundu, M.K., Fette, Seifen, Anstrichm. 79:170 (1977). 3. Freeman, I.P., F.B. Padley, andW.L. Sheppard, JAOCS 50:101 (1973). [Received S e p t e m b e r 7, 1979]