Acute chest pain (ACP) is one of the most common presenting symptoms at the emergency department. The differential diagnosis is vast. To exclude life-threatening causes, radiologists encounter an increasing amount of thoracic computed tomography (CT)
Computed tomography (CT) use in emergency departments represents a significant contribution to pediatric patients’ exposure to ionizing radiation. Here, we evaluate whether ultralow-dose chest CT can be diagnostically adequate for other diagnoses and
Pneumothorax is a common complication following blunt chest wall trauma. In these patients, because of the restrictions regarding immobilization of the cervical spine, Anteroposterior (AP) chest radiograph is usually the most feasible initial study w
Surgical resection of colorectal metastatic disease has increased as surgeons have adopted a more aggressive ideology. Current exclusion criteria are patients for whom a negative resection margin is not feasible or a future liver remnant (FLR) of gre
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chest radiography (CXR) and abdominal computed tomography (CT) for detecting pulmonary metastases after curative surgery for colorectal cancer.
An 8-year retrospective review of 106 serial computed tomographic (CT) examinations performed on 32 patients with colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the liver was done to determine if the CT appearance of such metastases changed with a favorable resp
While trauma is still the leading cause of death in the pediatric age range, it is surprising how little the CT appearances of pediatric chest injury have been investigated in the literature. We have reviewed the CT findings of blunt chest trauma in
Role of Chest CT in Patients with Negative Chest X-Rays Referred for Hepatic Colorectal Metastases Stephen P. Povoski, MD, Yuman Fong, MD, Shirley C. Sgouros, MS, Nancy E. Kemeny, MD, Robert J. Downey, MD, and Leslie H. Blumgart, MD, FRCS
Background: Hepatic resection is the standard treatment for hepatic colorectal metastases. The lung represents the next most likely site, after the liver, of metastatic disease. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is more sensitive than is chest x-ray in detecting metastatic lung lesions. However, the usefulness of chest CT in the evaluation of patients before hepatic resection remains uncertain. Methods: One hundred consecutive patients with negative chest x-rays and potentially resectable hepatic colorectal metastases underwent chest CT. Patients with CT findings suggestive of metastatic disease were subjected to thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) before laparotomy and attempted hepatic resection. The operative findings and clinical course were analyzed. Results: Eleven of 100 patients had a positive chest CT. Four of these 11 patients had malignant lesions of the lung (three metastatic colorectal cancers and one primary lung cancer). There was no difference in median total hospital stay (8.5 days [range 7 to 13 days] vs. 8.0 days [range 3 to 49 days]), number of perioperative deaths (0 vs. 2 deaths), or long-term outcome between those patients with a positive chest CT undergoing thoracotomy/VATS and those patients with a negative chest CT. Overall, chest CT provided a positive yield of 4% and a positive predictive value of 36% for the detection of malignant lesions of the lung. Conclusions: Chest CT only minimally improved detection of malignant lesions of the lung over chest x-ray. Thoracotomy/VATS and wedge resection of lung nodules did not adversely affect outcome. The low positive yield and low positive predictive value of chest CT in the setting of a negative chest x-ray places in question the usefulness of routinely performing chest CT as part of the extent-of-disease work-up before hepatic resection. Key Words: Hepatic metastases--Colorectal--Computed tomography--Pulmonary metastases.
There are 131,000 new cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed per year in the United States. 1 Approximately 50% of these patients will develop recurrence within 5 years after treatment of their primary colorectal cancer, with the liver representing the site of recurrence in 40%
to 80% of cases. 2-6 Survival of patients with untreated hepatic colorectal metastases to the liver is poor, with median survival, depending on extent of disease, ranging from 4 to 18 months.V-11 Five-year survival is rare. However, during the last 15 to 20 years, hepatic resection has become widely accepted as an effective therapeutic approach for selected patients with liver metastases. Numerous large series have documented both the safety of the procedure, with an operative mortality of 5% or less, and prolongation of postresection survival, with 5-year survival reported in the range of 25% to 4 0 % . I2-32 Likewise, 10-year and 20-year survival rates as high as 28% and 18%, respectively, have been reported. 27 Determining the extent of disease is very important in
Received March 20, 1997; accepted September 2, 1997. From the Departments of Surgery (SPP, YF, SCS, RJD, LHB) and Medicine (NEK), Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Yuman Fong, MD, Hepatobitiary Surgical Service, Dept. of Surgery, Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave., New York, NY 10021, USA. Presented at the 50th Annual Cancer Symposium of The Society of Surgical Oncology, Chicago, Illinois, March 20-23, 1997.
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selecting patients for resection of colorectal cancer metastasized to the liver. The lungs represent the most common extraabdominal site of metastases from colorectal cancer, but are rarely the only site of metastatic disease. 33'34 Therefore, radiographic evaluation of the chest plays an important role in patient selection. Traditionally, conventional chest x-ray has been used to detect pulmonary nodules. More recently, whole lung tomography has been shown to detect pulmonary metastases undetected by conventional chest x-rayY -37 During the past 15 to 20 years, computed tomography (CT) of the chest has been shown to be more sensitive than either conventional chest x-ray or whole lung tomography in detecting metastatic lung lesions in patients with extrathoracic malignancies. 3s-~5 However, the usefulness of chest CT in the extent-of-disease work-up done before hepatic resection in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer to the liver remains uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the routine use of chest CT as part of the extent-of-disease work-up in this clinical setting.
MATERIALS AND METHODS Between May 1995 and August 1996, 100 consecutive patients evaluated by the Hepatobiliary Surgical Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with potentially resectable metastatic colorectal cancer to the liver and a negative chest x-ray (in both posterior-anterior and lateral projections) were identified by chart review. As standard of care at that time, all 100 patients also underwent chest CT as part of their extent-of-disease work-up. Patients with a negative chest CT were designated as group A. Patients with chest CT findings suggestive of pulmonary metastases were designated as group B. All patients in group B were subjected to thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) before laparotomy and attempted hepatic resection. Thoracotomy or VATS was performed within 6 weeks of the chest CT being obtained. Resectability and the decision to proceed with hepatic resection were determined either at thoracotomy/VATS or at the time of laparotomy. Patients in group A were subdivided into groups of patients undergoing hepatic resection (group A1) and patients determined to be unresectable (group A2). Likewise, patients in group B were divided into subgroups of patients undergoing hepatic resection (group B 1) and patients determined to be unresectable (group B2). Unresectability at thoracotomy/VATS was defined as the presence of multiple, previously unrecognized pulmonary metastases that could not be completely resected and maintain an adequate pulmonary reserve. Unresectability at time of Ann Surg Oncol, VoL 5, No. l, 1998
laparotomy was defined as the presence of intraabdominal, extrahepatic metastatic disease (i.e., nodal or peritoneal metastases) or the presence of extensive bilobar hepatic metastases that would not allow salvage of at least two segments of the liver. The following parameters were recorded and analyzed: demographics (i.e., number of patients, median age, male:female ratio); CT/thoracotomy/VATS findings; resectability of liver metastases; perioperative outcome (i.e., total hospital stay, perioperative deaths); and long-term outcome (i.e., follow-up interval, recurrences, time to recurrence, disease status). Total hospital stay for patients with a negative chest CT was defined as the number of days each patient was hospitalized for laparotomy/hepatic resection. Total hospital stay for patients with a positive chest CT was defined as the sum of the number of days each patient was hospitalized for both laparotomy/hepatic resection and thoracotomy/VATS, whether these procedures were performed during a single or separate admissions to the hospital. Perioperative death was defined as death occurring within 30 days of the operation or during the same hospitalization. Data are expressed as median values (range). Age of patients, total hospital stay, follow-up interval, and time to recurrence were analyzed by Student's t-test. Perioperative deaths and recurrences were analyzed by Fisher's exact test.
RESULTS Demographics There were 89 patients in group A and 11 patients in group B. The median age for group A was 63 years (range 31 to 81 years), as compared to 62 years (range 39 to 81 years) for group B (P = .92). The male:female ratio for group A was 1.0:1.0 (45 males:44 females), as compared to 4.5:1 (9 males:2 females) for group B.
Thoracotomy/VATS Findings Patients in group B were subjected to thoracotomy or VATS and wedge resection of lung nodules before hepatic resection was contemplated (Table 1). Four of these 11 patients were found to have malignant lesions of the lungs. On pathologic examination, malignant lesions of the lungs ranged in size from 0.5 cm to 1.8 cm. Metastatic adenocarcinoma of colorectal origin was found in three of these four patients. One patient had a 0.7-cm deposit of metastatic adenocarcinoma in the right upper lobe (RUL). A second patient had 0.8-cm and 1.8-cm deposits of metastatic adenocarcinoma in the right middle lobe (RML) and a 0.8-cm deposit of metastatic
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T A B L E 1.
Patient 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Malignant and benign lung lesions in patients with negative chest x-ray and positive chest CT
0.5 cm; RLL No gross lesion seen; RUL No gross lesion seen; LUL No gross lesion seen; LUL 0.2/0.4 cm; LLL 0.6 cm; RLL 0.5 cm/no gross lesion seen; RML No gross lesion seen; LLL a
CT, computed tomography; IPLN, intrapulmonary lymph node; L, left; LLL, left lower lobe; LUL, left upper lobe; R, right; RML, right middle lobe; RLL, right lower lobe; RUL, right upper lobe; VATS, video-assisted thoracic surgery. a All patients undergoing either thoracotomy or VATS underwent wedge resection of the lung nodules. b Number in parentheses is the number of microscopic lesions with each pathologic diagnosis. c Multiple subcentimeter lesions seen at R VATS, consistent with metastatic adenocarcinoma, but only one such lesion was wedge biopsied. d No lesion seen at L VATS.
adenocarcinoma in the right lower lobe (RLL). A third patient had multiple subcentimeter deposits of metastatic adenocarcinoma in the RUL. Finally, a 0.5-cm primary bronchoalveolar carcinoma was found in the RLL of one of the four patients with malignant lesions of the lungs. Seven of the 11 patients with a positive chest CT were found to have benign pathology of the lungs, including calcified granulomas, intrapulmonary lymph nodes, focal fibrosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans. These ranged in size from no gross lesion seen to 0.6 cm.
Resectability of Liver Metastases Hepatic resection was performed on 65 of 89 (73%) of group A, as compared to 8 of 11 (73%) of group B. Three of the four patients with malignant lesions of the lungs found at thoracotomy/VATS were treated by hepatic resection. All three of these patients underwent VATS/ thoracotomy and hepatic resection at the same operation. The fourth patient did not undergo hepatic resection, secondary to multiple, biopsy-proven, subcentimeter, metastatic colorectal tumor deposits seen at right VATS. Five of the seven patients with benign pathology of the lungs found at thoracotomy/VATS were treated by hepatic resection. Four of these five patients underwent thoracotomy/VATS and hepatic resection during the same operation. One of these five patients underwent thoracotomy/ VATS 14 days before undergoing hepatic resection. Two of the seven patients with benign pathology of the lungs found at thoracotomy/VATS were deemed unresectable at laparotomy because of the intraabdominal extent of disease. One of these two patients underwent thoracotomy/VATS and laparotomy at the same operation. The
other patient underwent thoracotomy/VATS 21 days before undergoing laparotomy.
Perioperative and Long-term Outcome Perioperative and long-term outcome are summarized in Table 2. The median total hospital stay for those patients undergoing hepatic resection was 8.0 days (range 3 to 49 days) for group A1, as compared to 8.5 days (range 7 to 13 days) for group B 1 (P = .79). The median total hospital stay for those patients who were determined to be unresectable was 5.0 days (range 1 to 15 days) for group A2, as compared to 5.0 days (range 3 to 8 days) for group B2 (P = .60). There were two perioperative deaths in group A1, as compared to no perioperative deaths in group B 1 (P = .79). There were no perioperative deaths in either group A2 or group B2. Overall, median follow-up is 11 months (range 3 to 19 months) for all patients in the study. Median follow-up is 12 months (range 4 to 19 months) for group A1, as compared to 9 months (range 7 to 19 months) for group B 1 (P = .79). Median follow-up is 9 months (range 3 to 19 months) for group A2, as compared to 13 months (range 10 to 15 months) for group B2 (P = .27). To date, 27 of 63 (43%) patients in group A1 have had recurrences, as compared to 3 of 8 (38%) of group B1 (P = .29). Nine of 63 (14%) patients in group A1 have had recurrences invoIving the lungs, as compared to 1 of 8 (13%) in group B1 (P = .40). The median time to recurrence for group A1 is 7 months (range 2 to 13 months), as compared to 5 months (range 3 to 8 months) for group B1 (P = .20). For group A1, 39 of 63 (62%) patients are currently Ann Surg Oncol, VoL 5, No. 1, 1998
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T A B L E 2,
Median total hospital stay (in days) Perioperative deaths Median follow-up (in months) Number of patients in follow-up Recurrences At any site Lung Lung/liver Lung/pelvis Liver Pelvis Chest wall Intraabdominal Median time to recurrence (in months) NED AWD DOD
AWD, alive with disease; CT, computed tomography; DOD, dead of disease; NED, alive with no evidence of disease. Patients with a negative chest CT undergoing hepatic resection. b Patients with a negative chest CT determined unresectable. c One patient in group A2 was lost to follow-up. d Patients with a positive chest CT undergoing hepatic resection. Patients with a positive chest CT determined unresectable. IGroup B2 includes one patient with multiple subcentimeter loci of metastatic adenocarcinoma in the RUL who was determined unresectable at VATS.
alive with no evidence of disease (NED), 18 of 63 (29%) are alive with disease (AWD), and 6 of 63 (10%) are dead of disease (DOD), as compared to group B 1, in which 5 of 8 (63%) patients are NED, 3 of 8 (38%) patients are AWD, and 0 of 8 (0%) patients are DOD. For group A2, 0 of 23 (0%) patients are currently NED, 16 of 23 (70%) patients are AWD, and 7 of 23 (30%) patients are DOD, as compared to group B2, in which 0 of 3 (0%) patients are NED, 2 of 3 (67%) patients are AWD, and 1 of 3 (33%) patients are DOD.
DISCUSSION Before hepatic resection was recognized as an acceptable treatment for hepatic colorectal metastases, the presence of hepatic metastases foretold a poor prognosis, with median survival for patients with untreated hepatic metastases ranging from 4 to 18 months. 7-11 However, over the past two decades, hepatic resection has become accepted as a potentially curative modality of treatment of patients with colorectal metastases to the liver. Numerous series in the literature document the safety of hepatic resection, as well as its efficacy in prolongation of survival, with 5-year survival reported in the range of 25% to 40%. 12-3a However, approximately 60% to 75% of patients surviving hepatic resection for metastatic colorectal cancer to the liver develop further recurfences, 22'46'47 with the liver being the most common site Ann Surg Oncol, Vol. 5, No. l, 1998
(65%) and the lung being the most common extrahepatic site (22%) of recurrent disease. 47 This high incidence of further recurrence probably is related to the presence of undetected hepatic or extrahepatic metastatic disease at the time of hepatic resection. Therefore, a thorough and complete extent-of-disease work-up is extremely important in the selection of appropriate candidates for hepatic resection. Radiographic evaluation of the chest has always played an important role in the selection of appropriate candidates for hepatic resection. Chest CT has been shown to be more sensitive than either conventional chest x-ray or whole lung tomography in detecting metastatic lung lesions in patients with extrathoracic malignancies) T M In a previous report by Chang et al., 43 25 patients with a history of extrathoracic malignancy and new lung nodules were evaluated. Conventional chest x-ray detected 21 lung nodules ranging in size from 0.4 cm to 4.0 cm (median 1.7 cm), all of which were found at operation. Whole lung tomography detected 38 lung nodules ranging in size from 0.3 cm to 1.9 cm (median 0.7 cm), with 32 of 38 detected at operation. Chest CT detected 69 lung nodules ranging in size from 0.2 cm to 4.2 cm (median 0.5 cm), with 47 of 69 detected at operation. Nineteen of 21 (90%) of the lung nodules visible on conventional chest x-ray proved metastatic. Twentyfive of 38 (66%) of the lung nodules visible on whole lung tomography were proved metastatic. Thirty-one of
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69 (45%) of the lung nodules visible on chest CT were proved metastatic. Additionally, of those lung nodules seen by chest CT alone, only 20% were proved metastatic. In the study by Chang et al., 43 therefore, chest CT appeared to be more sensitive, but less specific, than conventional chest x-ray in detecting malignant lung lesions in patients with a history of extrathoracic malignancy. Today, chest CT is used routinely at many institutions as part of the extent-of-disease work-up for determination of hepatic resectability in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer to the liver. However, no specific study has proven its utility in this particular setting. In our study, only four of 100 patients with negative chest x-rays and only four of 11 patients with chest CT findings suggestive of pulmonary metastases had thoracotomy/VATS-proven malignant lesions of the lung. This translates into a positive yield of chest CT of only 4% and a positive predictive value of chest CT of only 36%. Thus, chest CT only minimally improved detection of malignant lesions of the lung over conventional chest
x-ray. This suggests only limited value in routine performance of chest CT as part of the extent-of-disease workup before hepatic resection in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer to the liver. For patients undergoing hepatic resection, perioperatire and long-term outcomes were not statistically different for patients with a positive chest CT versus patients with a negative chest CT. These data suggest that thoracotomy/VATS and wedge resection of lung nodules did not negatively affect the outcome of these patients, testifying to the safety with which thoracotomy, VATS, and wedge resection of lung nodules can be performed. Nevertheless, there is no consensus with regard to the routine use of chest CT as a screening tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with potentially resectable hepatic colorectal metastases who have a negative chest x-ray. Taking our group of 100 patients with a negative chest x-ray, at an estimated cost of $600 per chest CT, an additional $60,000 would have to be spent to perform routine chest CT. Likewise, at an estimated cost of $2500 per thoracotomy/VATS/wedge resection,
ScreeningCXR I NegativeCXR
II I NegativeChestCT
l HepaticResection I
[ HepaticResection ]
FIG. 1. Treatment algorithm for patients referred with potentially resectable hepatic colorectal metastases. InitialIy, a screening chest x-ray (CXR), in both posterior-anterior and lateral projections, is performed in all patients. Patients with a negative CXR proceed to laparotomy and attempted hepatic resection. Patients with CXR findings suggestive of pulmonary metastases are subjected to chest computed tomography (CT). Patients with a negative chest CT proceed to laparotomy and attempted hepatic resection. Patients with chest CT findings suggestive of pulmonary metastases are subjected to thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). If lung pathology is determined to be benign, patients may proceed to laparotomy and attempted hepatic resection. If complete resection of lung metastases is possible, patients may proceed to laparotomy and attempted hepatic resection if clinically indicated. If complete resection of lung metastases is not possible, patients should not proceed to laparotomy and attempted hepatic resection.
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an additional $27,500 would have to be spent to further investigate the 11 suspicious pulmonary lesions seen on chest CT. This gives a total added cost of $87,500 spent to evaluate these 100 patients with a negative chest x-ray for appropriateness for hepatic resection. This added cost is substantial, especially when only four of 100 patients with a negative chest x-ray had thoracotomy/VATSproven malignant lesions of the lung. In the current atmosphere of cost containment and cost-effective medicine, it will likely become more difficult to justify routine chest CT screening of all patients with potentially resectable metastatic colorectal cancer to the liver when our current study demonstrates such a low positive yield and low positive predictive value of chest CT in this specific clinical setting. Increasing experience with lung resection for metastatic colorectal cancer has fostered a trend toward aggressive surgical resection of metastatic lung disease and has been shown to extend survival in patients with isolated lung metastases of colorectal origin. 48-53 Recently, two reports from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center have addressed the usefulness of patients undergoing both liver and lung resections for metastases of colorectal origin. 54'55 Both reports have shown that selected patients with liver and lung metastases of colorectal origin should be considered for resection of both metastatic foci. This approach is safe and offers the only possibility of long-term survival, producing survival after the second operation that is essentially the same as would be expected after resection of a single recurrence. Based on these findings, the Hepatobiliary Surgical Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center has elected to take an aggressive approach of performing both liver and lung resection in patients with potentially resectable metastatic colorectal cancer isolated to the liver and lungs. In summary, chest CT offers only minimal improvement over conventional chest x-ray in the detection of metastatic lesions of the lungs. Thoracotomy/VATS and wedge resection of lung nodules did not negatively affect outcome in patients undergoing hepatic resection. The low positive yield and low positive predictive value of chest CT, as well as the significant potential cost incurred by screening all patients with a chest CT and performing thoracotomy/VATS and wedge resection of lung nodules on all patients with a positive chest CT, places in question the utility of routinely performing chest CT as part of the extent-of-disease work-up done before hepatic resection. As a result of the findings of our paper, we propose that the investigation for possible metastatic disease to the lungs be limited initially to a screening chest x-ray. Only if the chest x-ray is abnormal Ann Surg Oncol, VoL 5, No. 1, 1998
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